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The demographic characteristics of widows, their reported risk behaviours and the prevalence of HIV were examined by analysing a longitudinal population-based cohort of men and women aged 15—54 years in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe.
The results from statistical analyses were used to construct a mathematical simulation model with the aim of estimating the contribution of widow behaviour to heterosexual HIV transmission. Widows were more likely to have high rates of partner change and engage in a pattern of transactional sex than married women. Widowers took partners who were a median of 10 years younger than themselves. This combined statistical analysis and model simulation suggest that widowhood plays an important role in the transmission of HIV in this rural Zimbabwean population.
High-risk partnerships may be formed when widowed men and women reconnect to the sexual network. AIDS as the leading cause of death among adults in southern Africa 1 is the major driver of early widowhood, even in areas of low prevalence. Clearly, marriage is only protective against sexually transmitted diseases STDs if it is monogamous and coincides with initiation of sexual activity.
The demographic structure of a population may affect the prevalence of HIV on a number of levels.
The probability of forming a sexual partnership with an infected individual depends on the prevalence of HIV. We hypothesise that widowhood and other forms of marriage dissolution may have an impact on transmission by supplying a source of infected individuals in the sexual network. The results from these statistical analyses were used to inform the construction of a mathematical model with the aim of estimating the importance of widow behaviour in the heterosexual transmission of HIV.
Male and female local residents identified in an initial household census were considered eligible for the study. The baseline round of the study was conducted between July and January with the follow-up conducted 3 years later in each site.
Men aged 17—54 years and women aged 15—54 years were included in the present analysis. A maximum of one member of each marital group husband and wife or wives, in the case of a polygamous union was selected to participate in order to maximise the power of an embedded randomised controlled trial. HIV serological testing was performed on dried blood spots using a highly sensitive and specific antibody dipstick assay.
Responses to sensitive questions about sexual behaviour were collected using an informal confidential system of voting, where participants wrote responses on slips of paper that they inserted into locked boxes.
This technique has been shown to improve the discrepancy between male and female reports of sexual activity. For the purposes of prevalence calculations, the baseline and follow-up survey populations were treated as separate cross-sectional studies. Thus, all subjects interviewed in a given study round were included in the denominator of prevalence calculations.
Men and women who had not yet started sex were included, but percentages are also presented based only on the sexually experienced population ie, those who had started to have sex at the time of the interview. Individuals who were part of a marital union at the time of the baseline survey were considered the population at risk of becoming widowed.
The incidence of widowhood was calculated as the number of married people at baseline reporting to be widowed at the time of follow-up divided by the time at risk. In either situation, we assumed that the person was widowed halfway 1.
Widowing events where a husband and wife in a marital pair both died in the 3-year follow-up period may have been missed if the household dissolved following the deaths, potentially resulting iptv channel schedule underestimation of widowing incidence rates. Rates were stratified by gender, age and HIV status at baseline. For the purposes of calculating the incidence of HIV, time-at-risk from all individuals negative at baseline who were found at follow-up were included in the denominator; individuals lost to follow-up were censored halfway through the study period.
Multiple logistic regression was used to model widowhood on HIV status at follow-up. Because age, marital status and HIV prevalence are correlated, we controlled for age in order to describe the independent association of marital status with HIV. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to remarriage events and are presented with respect to gender, controlling for age.
Data on individuals who had been widowed but not yet remarried were included as being censored at the end of the follow-up period. Based on the findings from the statistical analysis, a preliminary mathematical model was constructed. While individual risks of infection can be measured directly from cohort studies such as the Manicaland cohort, their contribution to HIV transmission at the population level cannot. The model presented here seeks to examine the importance of male and female widow behaviour in the transmission of HIV, rather than to quantify the impact of interventions targeted at this group.Romont is first mentioned in as in Rotundo Monte.
In it was mentioned as Romont. The municipality was formerly known by its German name Remundhowever, that name is no longer used. The oldest trace of human settlement in Romont is five Hallstatt era tumuli in the village of Bossens. The ruins of several other prehistoric settlements have been discovered including the foundation of a Roman era building at Bochanat. A document from from the Abbey of Hauterive mentions the Romont as a wooded hill.
At that time, Romont was part of the territory of the Bishop of Lausanne. In Peter II sent a castellan to Romont to build a castle and found a village.
A few years later, the Peace of Evian inconfirmed the Savoy rights to Romont. The main castle Grand Donjonwith a typical Savoy square floor plan, was completed before The original castle partially collapsed in and was rebuilt by Fribourg in Another castle with a round tower, formerly known as the Petit Donjon, but now known as Boyer-tower was built around —, most likely by Peter II. The walls were demolished in — Between andfive fires destroyed the gothic center of town, which was replaced with more modern buildings.
Romont was one of the most important cities in the Vaud region. At the end of the 13th Century, its population numbered more than 1, and before the Burgundian Wars it housed nearly 1, residents. It was the center of the bailiwick and an important link between Fribourg and the Savoy possessions in the Lake Geneva. Presumably around —, but certainly no later thanit was granted town rights modeled after the rights of Moudon.
During the Burgundian Wars, Bern and Fribourg looted and burned the city twice. Romont remained loyal to its Savoy rulers until the Bernese conquest of Vaud. During the conquest by the Protestant Bernese troops, Romont was able to ally with Catholic Fribourg and retain the traditional faith.
It was capital of the bailiwick of Romont untiland until the capital of the same district. During the Stecklikrieg inRomont continued to support the Helvetic Republic.See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive.
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Media Type Media Type. Produced by the Highway Safety Foundation inthis shocking film deals with a subject quite taboo for its time. The short serves as a dramatized warning, ending with graphic case studies. Unlike the driver's education films produced by the same company, this film was apparently issued for only a short time before being withdrawn.
William Smith tracks down his father, a vampire who raped his mother. The IMDB entry is here. German director Fritz Lang is best known for the highly influential films from relatively early in his career, especially Metropolis and M But he also had a brief Hollywood heyday during the mid s, when he made some of his best films.
Scarlet Street has been claimed by film noir. This attribution is understandable. The lighting is dark, with heavy use of shadows. The characters are all shady as well. Kitty is certainly a femme fatale, although hints are dropped that she is an Variation on idea elevated to noir importance by The Killerswhere victim of femme fatale tries to abandon the city and his past identity.
Sex education film aimed at teenage boys, with the coach as authority figure and teacher. Touching romantic comedy starring Cary Grant and Irene Dunne. Find out more about this film at its IMDB page.
One of the best examples of post-World War II social guidance films, with examples of "good" and "bad" girls, proper and improper dating etiquette, courtesy to parents, and an analysis of what makes some people popular and others not. A scream and a sobering document of postwar conformity. Director: Ted Peshak. Cinematography: Bill Rockar. Writers: Robert Chapin and Patricia Kealy. Editor: George Wilbern. Educational adviser: Dr. Treasury Department. Complex and disturbing anti-Japanese propaganda film produced to spur the sale of U.
Mark of Zorro was the transition between Douglas Fairbanks' early career as a brash all-American hero and the lavish s costume adventures. Director D. Griffith's expensive, most ambitious silent film masterpiece Intolerance is one of the milestones and landmarks in cinematic history.
Many reviewers and film historians consider it the greatest film of the silent era.O'Connell and Angela Caputo. Lake Michigan water rates have been surging throughout the Chicago region in recent years, squeezing low-income residents and leaving them with little, if any, recourse, a Tribune analysis shows.
People there pay nearly six times more for the same amount of water than residents of Highland Park, a wealthy, predominantly white town on the North Shore — and four times more than Chicago residents.
Community leaders offer a variety of explanations for the high rates. Some acknowledge that residents are paying for significant amounts of water lost through cracked pipes and leaky hydrants. Others say they are imposing higher rates to pay exorbitant replacement costs of that infrastructure. Through it all, little accountability exists, both in the rates they set and how well the communities maintain their systems. In the past two years, two towns — Harvey and Maywood — have been singled out for mismanagement or fraud.
The western suburb of Maywood, where Hylton has resided in a tidy, orange brick ranch since the late s, shut off his water in May while he was rinsing a cup at breakfast, he recalled.
A fly buzzed around a pile of dirty dishes in the sink. Water rates in Maywood are among the highest in the Chicago region, in part to pay for the 38 percent of water the village loses before it ever reaches the taps of residents like Hylton. Hylton said he told the man that part of the water bill had been paid and he was hoping to arrange a payment plan. The worker said he merely was carrying out orders, then stepped into his van and drove away, Hylton said.
The latest census figures show that Maywood has about 7, households. That is one of the highest reconnection fees in the region, but those fees exist in other low-income, predominantly African-American towns. He accepted containers of water from neighbors to wash dishes. He used a bucket in his garage to relieve himself, he said.
His clothes went unwashed. He came up with the money a few days later, and his water service resumed in early July, Hylton said. Very dirty. If I had enough money to get a lawyer, I would sue them. In making its analysis, the Tribune requested water rates and demographic data from communities with publicly managed systems that use Lake Michigan water.
Of those, responded. One community, Harvey, does not list rates on its water bills and did not respond to requests from the Tribune.The following is a list of noted current and former residents of Teaneck, New Jersey.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. B denotes that the person was born in Teaneck. Accessed August 22, Accessed October 24, Three older children are in college. Accessed November 17, Accessed November 8, Accessed September 13, Jerina, 18, of River Grove, Ill. Nininger of Larkspur, Calif. Biophysicist in Profile: Jane S. RichardsonBiophysical Society Newsletter, February Accessed June 5, Jacob J. SchacterYeshiva University.
Why our water rates are surging – and why black and poor suburbs pay more
Accessed February 2, Accessed January 19, Accessed December 3, Walker, a leader in educational statistics and the first woman to be president of the American Statistical Association, died Saturday at Holy Name Hospital in Teaneck, N. She was 91 years old and lived in Teaneck. Accessed March 31, While the magazine's editorial offices are at 22 East 40th Street in Manhattan, its guiding force emanates from the second-story study of Prof. Alan F. Westin in Teaneck.
Accessed February 21, The longtime Teaneck resident was Accessed December 19, God punished him by making the Rangers lose. Accessed August 26, When he tells his mother he has no intention of moving with the family from their home in Teaneck to the nearby but WASPier, more-upscale town of Tenafly because, 'I'm Jewish, I belong here,' her warning-response strikes him as strange.
Accessed September 14, His early years in Teaneck, N. Before long, Black and [Leonard] Maltin were skipping after-school studies to go watch movies. Accessed March 18, Howard Fast: A Critical companionp. Accessed July 16, Accessed June 26, The Hoerrs moved to Middleborough in after 33 years in Teaneck.
He lives in Teaneck.Post a Comment Hello! Thanks for stopping by and choosing to leave a message. I read every message and I usually reply via the comment thread. I think I've fixed that now. I hope.
National Youth Gang Survey Analysis
My apologies if you were caught up in that. I think I"ve caught up with, and replied to, all the comments now. Pages 2 Resources: U. Resources: Canada Resources: U.
Tuesday, October 14, 52 Ancestors: 39 William R. Sharp -? Counties of New Brunswick William R. For more information about the challenge and links to the other blogs participating in the challenge, please click on the badge in the right margin. I originally wanted to write about William R. My William R.
Sharp was born January 19, as the youngest son or possibly youngest surviving son of my 4 th great grandparents, William and Sarah [?? William R is listed as widowed. He is living next door to his parents, William, 81 and Sarah, Both men are farmers.
Also in the household is 20 year old Ernest S. Another person in the household is Leila A. I was now curious because Leila had not been in the household 10 years ago, although she would have been three.Respondents provided information regarding the estimated ages of gang members in their jurisdictions. Analysis for this section pertains only to law enforcement agencies reporting gang problems.
Please see the Prevalence of Gang Problems section. Respondents provided information regarding the gender of gang members in their jurisdictions. Respondents provided information regarding gangs with female members in their jurisdictions. Suggested citation: National Gang Center. National Youth Gang Survey Analysis. Demographics Age of Gang Members Respondents provided information regarding the estimated ages of gang members in their jurisdictions. In virtually every survey year, law enforcement agencies report a greater percentage of adult 18 and over gang members compared with juvenile under 18 gang members.
The most recent figures provided by law enforcement indicate that more than three out of every five gang members are adults. Larger cities and suburban counties, which typically have long-standing gang problems, are more likely to report more adult gang members than juvenile gang members.
Conversely, smaller cities and rural counties, whose gang problems are relatively more recent, are more likely to report equal proportions of juvenile and adult gang members. Gender of Gang Members Respondents provided information regarding the gender of gang members in their jurisdictions. Law enforcement agencies overwhelmingly report a greater percentage of male gang members versus female gang members—a typical finding from law enforcement data, but one that is challenged by other research methodologies.
Despite a growing concern of females joining gangs, little to no change in the percentage is observed across survey years.
Gender of Gang Members, — Female Male 7.How to interpret and create violin plots
Gangs With Female Members Respondents provided information regarding gangs with female members in their jurisdictions. A large percentage of agencies nearly one-quarter could not provide information regarding the prevalence of female membership within gangs, suggesting that this issue is of secondary or lesser significance for law enforcement. Of those agencies that could provide information, proportionally few less than 15 percent reported that none of the gangs in their jurisdictions have female members.
Nearly half of the gangs outside of the larger cities are reported to have female gang members, compared with approximately one in four in the larger cities. Of course, these results must be interpreted cautiously because of the sizeable amount of missing data.
Prevalence rates of white gang membership are lowest in larger areas but significantly higher in smaller areas, where the rate is more than 1.